Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz / الحاجّ مالك الشباز) (1925-1965)

Death:  21st February 1965
Location:  Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum, Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York, United States Plot:  Pinewood B, Grave 150
Cause of death:  Assassinated
Photo taken by:  Tony the Misfit

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African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
In February 1965, shortly after rejecting the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three of its members.  Malcolm X was preparing to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom when someone in the 400-person audience yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!".  As Malcolm X and his bodyguards tried to quell the disturbance, a man rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun; two other men charged the stage firing semi-automatic handguns.  Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.  The autopsy identified 21 gunshot wounds to the chest, left shoulder, arms and legs, including ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death in collaboration with Alex Haley, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.

Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950)

Death: 13th February 1950
Location: Adelboden Cemetery, Abelboden, Bern, Switzerland

 
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Italian/English writer of romance and adventure novels The Sea Hawk (1915), Scaramouche (1921), and Captain Blood (1922). He produced thirty-one novels, eight short story collections, six non-fiction books, numerous uncollected short stories, and a play. The first line of Scaramouche is engraved on his headstone:
"He was born with a gift of laughter and a sense that the world was mad".

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Death: 12th February 1804
Location: Königsberg Cathedral, Kaliningrad, Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia
Photo taken by: J110

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German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.
Kant's major work, Kritik der reinen Vernunft / Critique of Pure Reason (1781), aimed to explain the relationship between reason and human experience. With this project, he hoped to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He attempted to put an end to what he considered an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the scepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant is interned in a mausoleum adjoining the northeast corner of Königsberg Cathedral in what is now known as Kaliningrad, Russia. The mausoleum was constructed by the architect Friedrich Lahrs and was finished in 1924 in time for the bicentenary of Kant's birth. Originally, Kant was buried inside the cathedral, but in 1880 his remains were moved outside and placed in a neo-Gothic chapel adjoining the northeast corner of the cathedral. Over the years, the chapel became dilapidated before it was demolished to make way for the mausoleum. The tomb and its mausoleum are among the few artifacts of German times preserved by the Soviets after they conquered and annexed the city.
 

René Descartes (1596-1650)

Death: 11th February 1650
Location: Saint-Germain-des-Prés Abbey, Paris, Île-de-France, France
Cause of death: Pneumonia

Photo taken by: PHGCOM

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French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the father of modern philosophy, and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditationes de Prima Philosophia / Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) continues to be a standard text at many Universities. His best known philosophical statement is Cogito ergo sum / Je pense, donc je suis / I think, therefore I am.He died in Stockholm and was interred in Adolf Fredriks kyrka but in 1666 his remains were taken to France and buried in the Saint-Étienne-du-Mont. His remains were again transferred in 1819 to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, missing a finger and the skull.
 

Lewis Grassic Gibbon (James Leslie Mitchell) (1901-1935)

Death: 7th February 1935
Location: Arbuthnott Parish Church, Arbuthnott, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Cause of death: Peritonitis caused by a perforated ulcer

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Scottish writer who is best known for his trilogy A Scots Quair which is comprised of Sunset Song (1932), Cloud Howe (1933), and Grey Granite (1934). A Scots Quair describes the life of Chris Guthrie, a woman from the north east of Scotland during the early 20th century. Spartacus (1933), a novel set in the famous slave revolt, is his best-known full-length work outside this trilogy.